Manual page for RESTORE(8)
restore, rrestore - incremental file system restore
restores files from backup tapes created with the
is a string of at least one of the options listed below, along with
any modifiers and arguments you supply. Remaining arguments to
are the names of files (or directories whose files) are to be
restored to disk. Unless the
modifier is in effect, a directory name refers
to the files it contains, and (recursively) its subdirectories and
the files they contain.
After reading in the directory information from the tape,
invokes an interactive interface that allows you to browse
through the dump tape's directory hierarchy, and select
individual files to be extracted. See
below, for a description of available commands.
Restore the entire tape.
Load the tape's full contents into the current directory. This
option should only be used to restore a complete dump tape onto a clear
filesystem, or to restore an incremental dump tape after a full
restore. For example:
example# /usr/etc/newfs /dev/rxy0g
example# /usr/etc/mount /dev/xy0g /mnt
example# cd /mnt
example# restore r
is a typical sequence to restore a ``level 0''
can be done to get an incremental dump in on top of this.
requests a particular tape of a multivolume set from which to
resume a full restore (see the
option above). This allows
to start from a checkpoint when it is interrupted in the middle of
a full restore.
Table of contents. List each
that appears on the tape.
argument is given, the root directory is listed.
This results in a list of all files on the tape, unless the
modifier is in effect. (The
option replaces the function of the old
Extract the named files from the tape. If a named file matches a
directory whose contents were written onto the tape, and the
modifier is not in effect, the directory is recursively extracted.
The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possible).
argument is given, the root directory is extracted.
This results in the entire tape being extracted unless the
modifier is in effect.
Some of the following modifiers take arguments that are given as
separate words on the command line. When more than one such modifier
the arguments must appear in the same order as the modifiers that they
- a archive-file
The dump table of contents is taken from the specified
instead of from a dump tape.
If a requested file is present in the table of contents,
will prompt for the tape volume to be mounted.
If only contents information is needed, for example when the
option is specified, or the
option is specified without a corresponding
request, no dump tape will have to be mounted.
Convert the contents of the dump tape to the new filesystem format.
Debug. Turn on debugging output.
Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it references.
This prevents hierarchical restoration
of complete subtrees from the tape.
Extract by inode numbers rather than by filename to avoid regenerating
complete pathnames. This is useful if
only a few files are being extracted.
displays the name of each file it restores, preceded by its file type.
Do not ask whether to abort the restore in the event of tape errors.
tries to skip over the bad tape block(s) and continue as best it can.
- b factor
Blocking factor. Specify the blocking factor for tape reads.
will attempt to figure out the block size of the tape.
Note: a tape block is 512 bytes.
- f dump-file
as the file to restore from.
is specified as
reads from the standard input.
to be used in a pipeline to dump and restore a file system:
example# dump 0f - /dev/rxy0g | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)
If the name of the file is of the form
the restore is done from the specified machine over the network using
is normally run by root,
the name of the local machine must appear in the
file of the remote machine.
If the file is specified as
will attempt to execute as the specified user on the remote machine.
The specified user must have a
file on the remote machine that allows root from the local machine.
- s n
Skip to the
file when there are multiple dump files on the same tape.
For example, the command:
example# restore xfs /dev/nrar0 5
would position you at the fifth file on the tape.
enters interactive mode when invoked with the
option. Interactive commands are reminiscent of the shell.
For those commands that accept an argument, the default is the current
List files in
or the current directory, represented by a
Directories are appended with a
Entries marked for extraction are prefixed with a
If the verbose option is in effect, inode numbers are also listed.
- cd directory
Change to directory
(within the dump-tape).
Print the full pathname of the current working directory.
Add the current directory, or the named file or directory
to the list of files to extract. If a directory is specified, add that
directory and its files (recursively) to
the extraction list (unless the
modifier is in effect).
Delete the current directory, or the
named file or directory from the list of
files to extract. If a directory is specified, delete that
directory and all its descendents from the extraction list (unless the
modifier is in effect). The most expedient way to extract
a majority of files from a directory is to add that directory to the
extraction list, and then delete specific files to omit.
Extract all files on the extraction list from the dump tape.
asks which volume the user wishes to mount.
The fastest way to extract a
small number of files is to start with the
last tape volume and work toward
Toggle the status of the
is in effect, the
command lists the inode numbers of all entries, and
displays information about each file as it is extracted.
Display a summary of the available commands.
exits immediately, even if the extraction list is not empty.
the default tape drive
the default tape drive if called as
file containing directories on the tape
owner, mode, and timestamps for directories
information passed between incremental restores
complains about bad option characters.
Read errors result in complaints. If
has been specified, or the user responds
will attempt to continue.
If the dump extends over more than one tape,
asks the user to change tapes. If the
option has been specified,
also asks which volume the user wishes to mount.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by
Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never happen''.
Common errors are given below.
- Converting to new file system format.
A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.
It is automatically converted to the new file system format.
- filename: not found on tape
The specified file name was listed in the tape directory,
but was not found on the tape.
This is caused by tape read errors while looking for the file,
and from using a dump tape created on an active file system.
- expected next file inumber, got inumber
A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.
This can occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system.
- Incremental tape too low
When doing an incremental restore,
a tape that was written before the previous incremental tape,
or that has too low an incremental level has been loaded.
Incremental tape too high
When doing incremental restore,
a tape that does not begin its coverage where the previous incremental
tape left off,
or one that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
- Tape read error while restoring filename
- Tape read error while skipping over inode inumber
- Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
- A tape read error has occurred.
If a file name is specified,
then its contents are probably partially wrong.
If an inode is being skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize,
then no extracted files have been corrupted,
though files may not be found on the tape.
- resync restore, skipped num blocks
After a tape read error,
may have to resynchronize itself.
This message lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.
can get confused when doing incremental restores from
dump tapes that were made on active file systems.
A ``level 0''
dump must be done after a full restore.
runs in user mode,
it has no control over inode allocation;
this means that
repositions the files, although it
does not change their contents.
Thus, a full dump must be done to get a
new set of directories reflecting the new file positions, so that later
incremental dumps will be correct.
Created by unroff & hp-tools.
© by Hans-Peter Bischof. All Rights Reserved (1997).
Last modified 21/April/97