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Manual page for OPENBOOT(8S)

openboot - start the system kernel or a standalone program

SYNOPSIS

SPARCstation 1 SYSTEMS

>b [ device [ (c,u,p) ] ] [ filename ] boot-flags

SPARCstation 2 SYSTEMS, SPARCsystem 600MP SERIES

>b [ device-specifier ] [ filename ] boot-flags

AVAILABILITY

Desktop SPARCsystems, SPARCsystem 600MP series only.

DESCRIPTION

The boot program is started by the PROM monitor and loads the kernel, or another executable program, into memory.

USAGE

Booting Standalone

When booting standalone, the boot program (/boot) is brought in by the PROM from the file system. The PROM contains drivers for all devices. The boot program simply accesses the PROM device drivers via the ROMVEC interface.

Booting a System Over the Network

When booting over the network, the system PROM obtains a version of the boot program from a server using the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). The client broadcasts a RARP request containing its Ethernet address. A server responds with the client's Internet address. The client then sends a TFTP request for its boot program to that server (or if that fails, it broadcasts the request). The filename requested from a server must have a suffix that reflects the kernel architecture of the machine being booted. For these systems, the requested filename has the form:

ip-address.arch

where ip-address is the machine's Internet Protocol (IP) address in hex, and arch is a suffix representing its kernel architecture. These filenames are restricted to 14 characters for compatibility with UNIX System V and other operating systems. Therefore, the architecture suffix is limited to 5 characters; it must be in upper case. At present, the following suffixes are recognized: SUN3 for Sun-3 systems, SUN3X for Sun-3x systems, SUN4 for Sun-4 systems, SUN4C for Sun-4c systems, SUN4M for Sun-4m systems, S386 for Sun386i systems, and PCNFS for PC-NFS. arch.1 may be used to determine the kernel architecture of a machine.

When the Sun server receives the request, it looks in the directory /tftpboot for filename. That file is typically a symbolic link to the client's boot program, normally boot.arch in the same directory. The server invokes the TFTP server, tftpd.8c to transfer the file to the client.

When the file is successfully read in by the client, the boot program jumps to the load-point and loads vmunix (or a standalone program). In order to do this, the boot program makes a broadcast RARP request to find the client's IP address, and then makes a second broadcast request to a bootparamd.8 bootparams daemon, for information necessary to boot the client. The bootparams daemon obtains this information either from a local /etc/bootparams database file, or from a Network Information Service (NIS) map. The boot program sends two requests to the bootparams daemon -- the first, whoami, to obtain its hostname, and the second, getfile, to obtain the name of the client's server and the pathname of the client's root partition.

The boot program then performs a mount.8 operation to mount the client's root partition, after which it can read in and execute any program within that partition by pathname (including a symbolic link to another file within that same partition). Typically, it reads in the file /vmunix. If the program is not read in successfully, boot responds with a short diagnostic message.

System Startup

Once the system is loaded and running, the kernel performs some internal housekeeping, configures its device drivers, and allocates its internal tables and buffers. The kernel then starts process number 1 to run init.8 which performs file system housekeeping, starts system daemons, initializes the system console, and begins multiuser operation. Some of these activities are omitted when init is invoked with certain boot-flags. These are typically entered as arguments to the boot command and passed along by the kernel to init.

OPTIONS

device
One of:
le
Lance Ethernet
sd
SCSI disk, CDROM
st
SCSI 1/4" or 1/2" tape
fd
Diskette (Desktop SPARCsystems only)
id
IPI disk (SPARCsystem 600MP series only)
c
Controller number, 0 if there is only one controller for the indicated type of device.
u
Unit number, 0 if there is only one driver.
p
Partition number when booting off a disk, or tape file number when booting from a tape. Defaults to 0.
device-specifier
The device-specifier is a device name or a device alias. A default boot device is used if the device-specifier is not given. If a device-specifier is given and it is not a device alias, it is checked to see whether it is a valid device name. If it is not a valid device name (indicated by a leading "/"), then the default boot device is used, and the word is considered to be the filename. Refer to the Open Boot PROM 2.0 Toolkit User's Guide. The Open Boot Prom(OBP) command show-devs can be used to retrieve all of the devices known to the system. A valid device name of a SCSI disk on a SPARCsystem 600MP, for example, is shown as follows:

/iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e0001000/esp@f,80000/sd@3,0

The OBP command devalias displays all of the system built-in and user-defined device aliases. For example, the alias disk may represent the device-path

/iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e0001000/esp@f,80000/sd@3,0


filename
Name of a standalone program in the selected partition, such as stand/diag or vmunix. Note: filename is relative to the root of the selected device and partition. It never begins with a `/' (slash). If filename is not given, the boot program uses a default value (normally vmunix). This is stored in the vmunix variable in the boot executable file supplied by Sun, but can be patched to indicate another standalone program loaded using adb.1
boot-flags
The boot program passes all boot-flags to the kernel or standalone program. They are typically arguments to that program or, as with those listed below, arguments to programs that it invokes.
-a
Prompt interactively for the device and name of the file to boot. For more information on how to boot from a specific device, refer to [a manual with the abbreviation INSTALL].
-v
Verbose. Print more detailed information to assist in diagnosing booting problems.
-b
Pass the -b flag through the kernel to init.8 to skip execution of the /etc/rc.local script.
-h
Halt after loading the system.
-s
Pass the -s flag through the kernel to init.8 for single-user operation.
-d
Pass the -d debug flag through the debugger (e.g., kadb) to a standalone program being debugged.
-w
Pass the -w flag to the kernel to mount a root file system read-write.
-i initname
Pass the -i initname to the kernel to tell it to run initname as the first program rather than the default /sbin/init.

FILES

/boot
standalone boot program
/tftpboot/address
symbolic link to the boot program for the client whose Internet address, in uppercase hexadecimal, is address
/tftpboot/boot.sun4c
Sun-4c first stage boot program
/tftpboot/boot.sun4m
Sun-4m first stage boot program
/usr/etc/in.tftpd
TFTP server
/usr/kvm/mdec/installboot
program to install boot blocks from a remote host
/vmunix
kernel file that is booted by default
/usr/kvm/boot
/etc/bootparams
file defining root and swap paths for clients

SEE ALSO

adb.1 arch.1 tftp.1c boot.8s bootparamd.8 init.8 kadb.8s monitor.8s mount.8 ndbootd.8c rc.8 reboot.8 tftpd.8c

Open Boot PROM 2.0 Toolkit User's Guide
Open Boot PROM Toolkit User's Guide
[a manual with the abbreviation INSTALL]
[a manual with the abbreviation ADMIN]

NOTES

The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow Pages (YP). The functionality of the two remains the same; only the name has changed.


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Created by unroff & hp-tools. © by Hans-Peter Bischof. All Rights Reserved (1997).

Last modified 21/April/97