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Manual page for INTRO(8)

intro - introduction to system maintenance and operation commands

DESCRIPTION

This section contains information related to system bootstrapping, operation and maintenance. It describes all the server processes and daemons that run on the system, as well as standalone (PROM monitor) programs.

An 8V section number means one or more of the following:

Disk formatting and labeling is done by format.8s Bootstrapping of the system is described in boot.8s openboot.8s and init.8 The standard set of commands run by the system when it boots is described in rc.8 Related commands include those that check the consistency of file systems, fsck.8 those that mount and unmount file systems, mount.8 add swap devices, swapon.8 force completion of outstanding file system I/O, sync.2 shutdown or reboot a running system shutdown.8 halt.8 and reboot.8 and, set the time on a machine from the time on another machine rdate.8c

Creation of file systems is discussed in mkfs.8 and newfs.8 File system performance parameters can be adjusted with tunefs.8 File system backups and restores are described in dump.8 and restore.8

Procedures for adding new users to a system are described in adduser.8 using vipw.8 to lock the password file during editing. panic.8s which describes what happens when the system crashes, savecore.8 which can be used to analyze system crash dumps. Occasionally useful as adjuncts to the fsck.8 file system repair program are clri.8 dcheck.8 icheck.8 and ncheck.8

Configuring a new version of the kernel requires using the program config.8 major system bootstraps often require the use of mkproto.8 New devices are added to the /dev directory (once device drivers are configured into the system) using makedev.8 and mknod.8 The installboot.8s command can be used to install freshly compiled programs. The catman.8 command preformats the on-line manual pages.

Resource accounting is enabled by the accton command, and summarized by sa.8 Login time accounting is performed by ac.8 Disk quotas are managed using quot.8 quotacheck.8 quotaon.8 and repquota.8

A number of servers and daemon processes are described in this section. The update.8 daemon forces delayed file system I/O to occur and cron.8 runs periodic events (such as removing temporary files from the disk periodically). The syslogd.8 daemon maintains the system error log. The init.8 process is the initial process created when the system boots. It manages the reboot process and creates the initial login prompts on the various system terminals, using getty.8 The Internet super-server inetd.8c invokes all other internet servers as needed. These servers include the remote shell servers rshd.8c and rexecd.8c the remote login server rlogind.8c the FTP and TELNET daemons ftpd.8c and telnetd.8c the TFTP daemon tftpd.8c and the mail arrival notification daemon comsat.8c Other network daemons include the `load average/who is logged in' daemon rwhod.8c the routing daemon routed.8c and the mail daemon sendmail.8

If network protocols are being debugged, then the protocol debugging trace program trpt.8c is often useful. Remote magnetic tape access is provided by rsh and rmt.8c Remote line printer access is provided by lpd.8 and control over the various print queues is provided by lpc.8 Printer cost-accounting is done through pac.8

Network host tables may be gotten from the ARPA NIC using gettable.8c and converted to UNIX-system-usable format using htable.8

RPC and NFS daemons

RPC and NFS daemons include:

portmap
used by RPC based services.
ypbind
used by the Network Information Service (NIS) to locate the NIS server. Note: the Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow Pages (YP). The functionality of the two remains the same; only the name has changed.
biod
used by NFS clients to read ahead to, and write behind from, network file systems.
nfsd
the NFS server process that responds to NFS requests on NFS server machines.
ypserv
the NIS server, typically run on each NFS server.
rstatd
the server counterpart of the remote speedometer tools.
mountd
the mount server that runs on NFS server machines and responds to requests by other machines to mount file systems.
rwalld
used for broadcasting messages over the network.

LIST OF MAINTENANCE COMMANDS

Name	Appears on Page	Description 


ac	ac(8)	 login accounting
acctcms	acctcms(8)	 command summary from per-process accounting records
acctcon1	acctcon(8)	 connect-time accounting
acctcon2	acctcon(8)	 connect-time accounting
acctdisk	acct(8)	 miscellaneous accounting commands
acctdusg	acct(8)	 miscellaneous accounting commands
acctmerg	acctmerg(8)	 merge or add total accounting files
accton	acct(8)	 miscellaneous accounting commands
accton	sa(8)	 system accounting
acctprc1	acctprc(8)	 process accounting
acctprc2	acctprc(8)	 process accounting
acctwtmp	acct(8)	 miscellaneous accounting commands
adbgen	adbgen(8)	 generate adb script
add_client	add_client(8)	 create a diskless network bootable NFS client on a server
add_services	add_services(8)	 provide software installation services for any architecture
add_user	add_user(8)	 shellscript to add a user account to a machine
adduser	adduser(8)	 procedure for adding new users
adv	adv(8)	 advertise a directory for remote access with RFS
analyze	old-analyze(8)	 postmortem system crash analyzer
arp	arp(8C)	 address resolution display and control
audit	audit(8)	 audit trail maintenance
auditd	auditd(8)	 audit daemon
audit_warn	audit_warn(8)	 audit daemon warning script
automount	automount(8)	 automatically mount NFS file systems
biod	nfsd(8)	 NFS daemons
boot	boot(8S)	 start the system kernel or a standalone program
bootparamd	bootparamd(8)	 boot parameter server
C2conv	c2conv(8)	 convert system to or from C2 security
C2unconv	c2conv(8)	 convert system to or from C2 security
captoinfo	captoinfo(8V)	 convert a termcap description into a terminfo description
catman	catman(8)	 create the cat files for the manual
change_login	change_login(8)	 control screen blanking and choice of login utility
chargefee	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
check4	set4(8)	 check the virtual address space limit flag in a module
chown	chown(8)	 change owner
chroot	chroot(8)	 change root directory for a command
chrtbl	chrtbl(8)	 generate character classification table
ckpacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
client	client(8)	 add or remove diskless Sun386i systems
clri	clri(8)	 clear inode
colldef	colldef(8)	 convert collation sequence source definition
comsat	comsat(8C)	 biff server
config	config(8)	 build system configuration files
copy_home	copy_home(8)	 fetch default startup files for new home directories
crash	crash(8)	 examine system images
cron	cron(8)	 clock daemon
dbconfig	dbconfig(8)	 initializes the dial box
dcheck	dcheck(8)	 file system directory consistency check
devinfo	devinfo(8S)	 print out system device information
devnm	devnm(8V)	 device name
diskusg	diskusg(8)	 generate disk accounting data by user
dkctl	dkctl(8)	 control special disk operations
dkinfo	dkinfo(8)	 report information about a disk's geometry and partitioning
dmesg	dmesg(8)	 collect system diagnostic messages to form error log
dname	dname(8)	 print RFS domain and network names
dodisk	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
dorfs	dorfs(8)	 initialize, start and stop RFS automatically
dump	dump(8)	 incremental file system dump
dumpfs	dumpfs(8)	 dump file system information
edquota	edquota(8)	 edit user quotas
eeprom	eeprom(8S)	 EEPROM display and load utility
etherd	etherd(8C)	 Ethernet statistics server
etherfind	etherfind(8C)	 find packets on Ethernet
exportfs	exportfs(8)	 export and unexport directories to NFS clients
extract_files	extract_files(8)	 extract files from release media
extract_unbundled	extract_unbundled(8)	 extract and execute unbundled-product installation scripts
fastboot	fastboot(8)	 reboot/halt the system without checking the disks
fasthalt	fastboot(8)	 reboot/halt the system without checking the disks
fingerd	fingerd(8C)	 remote user information server
format	format(8S)	 disk partitioning and maintenance utility
fpa_download	fpa_download(8)	 download to the Floating Point Accelerator
fparel	fparel(8)	 Sun FPA online reliability tests
fpaversion	fpaversion(8)	 print FPA version, load microcode
fpurel	fpurel(8)	 perform tests the Sun Floating Point Co-processor
fpuversion4	fpuversion4(8)	 print the Sun-4 FPU version
fsck	fsck(8)	 file system consistency check and interactive repair
fsirand	fsirand(8)	 install random inode generation numbers
ftpd	ftpd(8C)	 TCP/IP Internet File Transfer Protocol server
fumount	fumount(8)	 force unmount of an advertised RFS resource
fusage	fusage(8)	 RFS disk access profiler
fuser	fuser(8)	 identify processes using a file or file structure
fwtmp	fwtmp(8)	 manipulate connect accounting records
gencat	installtxt(8)	 create a message archive
gettable	gettable(8C)	 get DARPA Internet format host table from a host
getty	getty(8)	 set terminal mode
gid_allocd	uid_allocd(8C)	 UID and GID allocator daemons
gpconfig	gpconfig(8)	 initialize the Graphics Processor
grpck	grpck(8V)	 check group database entries
gtconfig	gtconfig(8)	 initialize the GT graphics accelerator and download microcode
gt_lpconfig	gt_lpconfig(8)	 configure GT lightpen parameters
gxtest	gxtest(8S)	 stand alone test for the Sun video graphics board
halt	halt(8)	 stop the processor
hostconfig	hostconfig(8C)	 configure a system's host parameters
hostrfs	hostrfs(8)	 Convert IP addresses to RFS format
htable	htable(8)	 convert DoD Internet format host table
icheck	icheck(8)	 file system storage consistency check
idload	idload(8)	 RFS user and group mapping
ifconfig	ifconfig(8C)	 configure network interface parameters
imemtest	imemtest(8S)	 stand alone memory test
in.comsat	comsat(8C)	 biff server
inetd	inetd(8C)	 Internet services daemon
in.fingerd	fingerd(8C)	 remote user information server
infocmp	infocmp(8V)	 compare or print out terminfo descriptions
in.ftpd	ftpd(8C)	 TCP/IP Internet File Transfer Protocol server
init	init(8)	 process control initialization
in.named	named(8C)	 Internet domain name server
in.rexecd	rexecd(8C)	 remote execution server
in.rlogind	rlogind(8C)	 remote login server
in.routed	routed(8C)	 network routing daemon
in.rshd	rshd(8C)	 remote shell server
in.rwhod	rwhod(8C)	 system status server
installboot	installboot(8S)	 install bootblocks in a disk partition
install_small_kernel	install_small_kernel(8)	install a small, pre-configured kernel
installtxt	installtxt(8)	 create a message archive 
in.talkd	talkd(8C)	 server for talk program
in.telnetd	telnetd(8C)	 TCP/IP TELNET protocol server
in.tftpd	tftpd(8C)	 TCP/IP Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
in.tnamed	tnamed(8C)	 TCP/IP Trivial name server
intr	intr(8)	 allow a command to be interruptible
iostat	iostat(8)	 report I/O statistics
ipallocd	ipallocd(8C)	 Ethernet-to-IP address allocator
kadb	kadb(8S)	 adb-like kernel and standalone-program debugger
keyenvoy	keyenvoy(8C)	 talk to keyserver
keyserv	keyserv(8C)	 server for storing public and private keys
kgmon	kgmon(8)	 generate a dump of the operating system's profile buffers
lastlogin	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
ldconfig	ldconfig(8)	 link-editor configuration
link	link(8V)	 exercise link and unlink system calls
list_files	list_files(8)	 list files from release media
listen	nlsadmin(8)	 network listener service administration for RFS
lockd	lockd(8C)	 network lock daemon
logintool	logintool(8)	 graphic login interface
lpc	lpc(8)	 line printer control program
lpd	lpd(8)	 printer daemon
mailstats	mailstats(8)	 print statistics collected by sendmail
makedbm	makedbm(8)	 make a NIS ndbm file
MAKEDEV	makedev(8)	 make system special files
makekey	makekey(8)	 generate encryption key
mc68881version	mc68881version(8)	 print the MC68881 mask number and approximate clock rate
mconnect	mconnect(8)	 connect to SMTP mail server socket
mkfile	mkfile(8)	 create a file
mkfs	mkfs(8)	 construct a file system
mknod	mknod(8)	 build special file
mkproto	mkproto(8)	 construct a prototype file system
modload	modload(8)	 load a module
modstat	modstat(8)	 display status of loadable modules
modunload	modunload(8)	 unload a module
monacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
monitor	monitor(8S)	 system ROM monitor
mountd	mountd(8C)	 NFS mount request server
mount	mount(8)	 mount and unmount file systems
mount_tfs	mount_tfs(8)	 mount and dismount TFS filesystems
named	named(8C)	 Internet domain name server
ncheck	ncheck(8)	 generate names from i-numbers
ndbootd	ndbootd(8C)	ND boot block server
netconfig	netconfig(8C)	 PNP boot service
netstat	netstat(8C)	 show network status
newaliases	newaliases(8)	 rebuild the data base for the mail aliases file
newfs	newfs(8)	 create a new file system
newkey	newkey(8)	 create a new key in the publickey database
nfsd	nfsd(8)	 NFS daemons
nfsstat	nfsstat(8C)	 Network File System statistics
nlsadmin	nlsadmin(8)	 network listener service administration for RFS
nslookup	nslookup(8C)	 query domain name servers interactively
nsquery	nsquery(8)	 RFS name server query
nulladm	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
old-analyze	old-analyze(8)	 postmortem system crash analyzer
openboot	openboot(8S)	 start the system kernel or a standalone program
pac	pac(8)	 printer/plotter accounting information
panic	panic(8S)	 what happens when the system crashes
ping	ping(8C)	 send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
pnpboot	pnpboot(8C)	 pnp diskless boot service
pnpd	pnpd(8C)	 PNP daemon
pnp.s386	pnpboot(8C)	 pnp diskless boot service
portmap	portmap(8C)	 TCP/IP port to RPC program number mapper
praudit	praudit(8)	 print contents of an audit trail file
prctmp	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
prdaily	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
prtacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
pstat	pstat(8)	 print system facts
pwck	pwck(8V)	 check password database entries
pwdauthd	pwdauthd(8C)	 server for authenticating passwords
quotacheck	quotacheck(8)	 file system quota consistency checker
quotaoff	quotaon(8)	 turn file system quotas on and off
quotaon	quotaon(8)	 turn file system quotas on and off
quot	quot(8)	 summarize file system ownership
rarpd	rarpd(8C)	 TCP/IP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol server
rc	rc(8)	 command scripts for auto-reboot and daemons
rc.boot	rc(8)	 command scripts for auto-reboot and daemons
rc.local	rc(8)	 command scripts for auto-reboot and daemons
rdate	rdate(8C)	 set system date from a remote host
rdump	dump(8)	 incremental file system dump
reboot	reboot(8)	 restart the operating system
renice	renice(8)	 alter nice value of running processes
repquota	repquota(8)	 summarize quotas for a file system
restore	restore(8)	 incremental file system restore
rexd	rexd(8C)	 RPC-based remote execution server
rexecd	rexecd(8C)	 remote execution server
rfadmin	rfadmin(8)	 RFS domain administration
rfpasswd	rfpasswd(8)	 change RFS host password
rfstart	rfstart(8)	 start RFS
rfstop	rfstop(8)	 stop the RFS environment
rfuadmin	rfuadmin(8)	 RFS notification shell script
rfudaemon	rfudaemon(8)	 Remote File Sharing daemon
rlogind	rlogind(8C)	 remote login server
rmail	rmail(8C)	 handle remote mail received via uucp
rm_client	rm_client(8)	 remove an NFS client
rmntstat	rmntstat(8)	 display RFS mounted resource information
rmt	rmt(8C)	 remote magtape protocol module
route	route(8C)	 manually manipulate the routing tables
routed	routed(8C)	 network routing daemon
rpc.etherd	etherd(8C)	 Ethernet statistics server
rpcinfo	rpcinfo(8C)	 report RPC information
rpc.lockd	lockd(8C)	 network lock daemon
rpc.mountd	mountd(8C)	 NFS mount request server
rpc.rexd	rexd(8C)	 RPC-based remote execution server
rpc.rquotad	rquotad(8C)	 remote quota server
rpc.rstatd	rstatd(8C)	 kernel statistics server
rpc.rusersd	rusersd(8C)	 network username server
rpc.rwalld	rwalld(8C)	 network rwall server
rpc.sprayd	sprayd(8C)	 spray server
rpc.statd	statd(8C)	 network status monitor
rpc.yppasswdd	yppasswdd(8C)	 server for modifying NIS password file
rpc.ypupdated	ypupdated(8C)	 server for changing NIS information
rquotad	rquotad(8C)	 remote quota server
rrestore	restore(8)	 incremental file system restore
rshd	rshd(8C)	 remote shell server
rstatd	rstatd(8C)	 kernel statistics server
runacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
runacct	runacct(8)	 run daily accounting
rusage	rusage(8)	 print resource usage for a command
rusersd	rusersd(8C)	 network username server
rwalld	rwalld(8C)	 network rwall server
rwhod	rwhod(8C)	 system status server
sa	sa(8)	 system accounting
savecore	savecore(8)	 save a core dump of the operating system
sendmail	sendmail(8)	 send mail over the internet
set4	set4(8)	 set the virtual address space limit flag in a module
setsid	setsid(8V)	 set process to session leader
showfhd	showfhd(8C)	 showfh daemon run on the NFS servers
showfh	showfh(8C)	 print full pathname of file from the NFS file handle
showmount	showmount(8)	 show all remote mounts
showrev	showrev(8)	 show machine and software revision information
shutacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
shutdown	shutdown(8)	 close down the system at a given time
skyversion	skyversion(8)	 print the SKYFFP board microcode version number
sprayd	sprayd(8C)	 spray server
spray	spray(8C)	 spray packets
start_applic	start_applic(8)	 generic application startup procedures
startup	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
statd	statd(8C)	 network status monitor
sticky	sticky(8)	 mark files for special treatment
sundiag	sundiag(8)	 system diagnostics
suninstall	suninstall(8)	 install and upgrade the SunOS operating system
swapon	swapon(8)	 specify additional device for paging and swapping
syslogd	syslogd(8)	 log system messages
sys-unconfig	sys-unconfig(8)	 undo a system's configuration
talkd	talkd(8C)	 server for talk program
telnetd	telnetd(8C)	 TCP/IP TELNET protocol server
tfsd	tfsd(8)	 TFS daemon
tftpd	tftpd(8C)	 TCP/IP Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
tic	tic(8V)	 terminfo compiler
tnamed	tnamed(8C)	 TCP/IP Trivial name server
trpt	trpt(8C)	 transliterate protocol trace
ttysoftcar	ttysoftcar(8)	 enable/disable carrier detect
tunefs	tunefs(8)	 tune up an existing file system
turnacct	acctsh(8)	 shell procedures for accounting
tzsetup	tzsetup(8)	 set up old-style time zone information in the kernel
uid_allocd	uid_allocd(8C)	 UID and GID allocator daemons
umount	mount(8)	 mount and unmount file systems
umount_tfs	mount_tfs(8)	 mount and dismount TFS filesystems
unadv	unadv(8)	 unadvertise a Remote File Sharing resource
unconfigure	unconfigure(8)	 reset the network configuration for a Sun386i system
unixname2bootname	unixname2bootname(8)	 convert SunOS device name to boot device name
unlink	link(8V)	 exercise link and unlink system calls
unset4	set4(8)	 unset the virtual address space limit flag in a module
update	update(8)	 periodically update the super block
user_agentd	user_agentd(8C)	 user agent daemon
uucheck	uucheck(8C)	 check the UUCP directories and Permissions file
uucico	uucico(8C)	 file transport program for the UUCP system
uuclean	uuclean(8C)	 uucp spool directory clean-up
uucleanup	uucleanup(8C)	 UUCP spool directory clean-up
uucpd	uucpd(8C)	 UUCP server
uusched	uusched(8C)	 the scheduler for the UUCP file transport program
uuxqt	uuxqt(8C)	 execute remote command requests
vipw	vipw(8)	 edit the password file
vmstat	vmstat(8)	 report virtual memory statistics
wtmpfix	fwtmp(8)	 manipulate connect accounting records
ypbatchupd	ypbatchupd(8C)	 NIS batch update daemon
ypbind	ypserv(8)	 NIS server and binder processes
ypinit	ypinit(8)	 build and install NIS database
ypmake	ypmake(8)	 rebuild NIS database
yppasswdd	yppasswdd(8C)	 server for modifying NIS password file
yppoll	yppoll(8)	 version of NIS map at NIS server
yppush	yppush(8)	 force propagation of changed NIS map
ypserv	ypserv(8)	 NIS server and binder processes
ypset	ypset(8)	 point ypbind at a particular server
ypsync	ypsync(8)	 collect most up-to-date NIS maps
ypupdated	ypupdated(8C)	 server for changing NIS information
ypxfr	ypxfr(8)	 transfer NIS map from NIS server to here
zdump	zdump(8)	 time zone dumper
zic	zic(8)	 time zone compiler


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Created by unroff & hp-tools. © by Hans-Peter Bischof. All Rights Reserved (1997).

Last modified 21/April/97